Capilla De Los Negros

Excerpt from a long Journal Entry

16 June 2014 –Tuesday

Gabriela continued to speak about other buildings. I begin to take fewer notes and more pictures. 

  • We spoke about a house built in 1831 that was the 1st house with high ceilings on both floors. It also had a secret passage, and the doors of the rooms were short so horses could not enter and the doors could be open only from the inside. This house was built for war.
  • Lastly, she told us about the Capilla De Los Negros, the chapel built for slaves in 1872 out of mud.

We went to visit the chapel. It is kept the same way it was years ago. The floor is still made of dirt and the benches were very old. Of course no one worship there now. It is kept by the grandson of the lady who used to take care of it in the beginning. I can’t remember his name. The church is a testament to the struggle of Afro-Argentines. It is the only building the state allowed them  have around 1862, their only place of worship. Currently, it is the only building they still have as a testimony of their history. 

Tina asked Dr. Anderson if they used the church as a form of organizing  the way the black church did and still does in America and Dr. Anderson said something that made it all come together even more, they had no need to organize and they did not really feel the need to organize.  

A short video I took is on youtube

Meeting Afro-Argentine Activist

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18 June 2014 Wednesday

Today I felt a little sick. I kept coughing and felt self-conscience about it. I think the weather is finally getting to me. It’s cold and sometimes damp. I only brought my faux-fur jacket, a hoodie (that I didn’t want to wear all the time) and some soft sweaters. Hopefully I would get better.

I broke my fast and made myself a full breakfast before I left. I was a little surprised that cayenne pepper was in the cupboard and happily made tea. I was able to say a little prayer in the cold kitchen. Its hard to pray in my room because when I wake up I have to be extra careful not to wake up my roommates who can be grumpy…sometimes throughout the entire day.

Anyway, we went to meet Afro-Argentinos Activists today at a school.  I don’t know why I felt so happy that I was meeting activist. Now however, I think it was not really a big idea but before I met them I had an image of the late 60’s early 70’s and people looking like Angela Davis. This was totally not the case!

The two we met were Maria De Ma Landa and Patrica Gomez.

Maria De Ma Landa was an older lady, 69 years of age…the same age as my father. She looked pretty good for her age.  She started organizing in 1994 when she was just 25 (around my age).  I had a hard time following her ‘success’ story because there seemed to be gaps in her spoken resume  and also things she said did not make sense for an activist to say.

For example, she kept telling us that her days of organizing were over because she was much older now. My idea of an activist is – you believe in something so much that you always have a zeal to make others see the world the way you do, even if this means working in your old age. See, where I am from, activist work on their projects and believe in their topics till death!

Nevertheless, here is her story:

I started teaching my people about their history by going from door to door in 1997. I wanted them to feel comfortable about their history. First I went from house to house and neighborhood to neighborhood. I saw when I went from door to door that most afro-argentines knew their history but were not teaching their children. They were also marring out of their race.

During the Memin administration people didn’t have work and got involved with drugs and alcohol.  They were clueless about what they could do concerning education. They did not know they could go to the universities for free.

I created a group of youth who with drug additions in 1998 called the group La Famillia. I used music like drums to bring them together and gave the youth work through grants to create small businesses so they could support themselves.

Here, I asked her if the group was still running but she informed me that the grant ran out…I felt this was also awkward as if your heart is into something, especially like helping your people, you should not depend solely on a grant. And what about those small businesses? Weren’t they making money?! .

It took 4 years for things to get up and kicking and finally afro-argentines are organized- well those who agree with her. See, this is another thing that got me thinking, when you are working towards a cause, the work never ends. The poor is with us always, there is always someone new to teach and someone who needs help. How in the world did her story had an end such as this one??

As I was sitting there trying to put the pieces together, someone asked a question and the topic changed to race.

Question: How do blacks/ Indians identify? I am against using terms like colonial branch because the name is chosen by the white man. (I believe she calls herself Afro-Argentine. I should have asked her about the term indigenous ).

Question: How do people respond to this organization? People who don’t look black and the next generation are embracing it. But they don’t recognize themselves as afro-argentines….it’s a pan-Diaspora movement. They all have the same concerns but now people are separating themselves. Everyone suffered the same. The ‘colonial’ people (those who embrace the term) feel they deserve everything from the government.

When she said this, I could make connections to what goes on in America concerning movements and activism. There is always confusion and a split in doctrines. Some want peace and others want violence.

Question: What’s most challenging with running an organization?  The 2010 censes. Those who went around asking the questions did not ask the “Afro-Argentine” question. So, at the end of the census, there was zero afro- argentines in Argentina. We are currently concerned about the census. 

Dr. Anderson chimed in and told us that there are currently 2 million but only 160 thousand said they were Afro-Argentine. In 2000 the state recorded 5% Afro-Argentine but in 2010 it was only .15. This happened because not only did no one ask the question but the examiners were told not to ask the question and the people did not anticipate the question in any way since it wasn’t asked since the 17th century.

Question: How do you feel after starting an organization, do you feel defeated? I feel very proud thanks to my ancestors. If not for my ancestors, I wouldn’t have came this far. I am the oldest of 32 cousins and while I still have a voice I am going to scold them about speaking from the heart and what they really are.   

After Maria De Ma Landa spoke there was a short intermission and then we met the younger activist, who is my age…Her name is Patrica Gomez. I was able to follow her closely.

She was very light skin with long hair. She looked like a Dominican but classified as Afro-Argentine. She told us that her grandparents were from West Africa. I wonder what she would call herself if she traveled to America. Maybe simply Argentine? Maybe?

She works for the Mutual Aid Society. I think her profession has to do with law. The organization that she works with is important for Afro-Argentines because it helps maintain traditions and social activities. She mentioned another organization called the NGO. I have to find what the acronym stands however, it works towards the human rights. It deals with diversity, and sexual orientation groups. It also tries to provide education and reach young workers and encourage them. Moreover, NGO creates awareness of what Afro-Descendent women have to suffer with sexism and racism. She is involved with both organizations.

I was glad she didn’t talk long but got right to the point as to what she did and what she was trying to do. Not to compare and contrast so much but she was currently working on projects unlike Landa.  One quote I got from this discussion is the following:

Your identity goes back to your history not just physical characteristics.

I learned that the history that she is trying to preserve or make others aware of is a history that is true and not lost, the state of Argentina just refuse to acknowledge it. Thus, children and even college students do not  learn about the Afro- Argentines.  If your parents or family don’t tell you about it, you may never learn about it.

There at the meeting, I met an American professor, Robert Cottrol who teaches Law and History at the George Washington University.

After eating out again at another restaurant, we walked home. Everyone decided to get ice cream but I still was feeling a little under the weather thus I went home. I stayed home by myself which was almost scary at first. I took a hot shower and went to bed.

By the way, we are totally not following this Itinerary that I keep pulling out. Maybe tomorrow I will leave it in my folder.

Meeting with Professor Ezequiel Adamovsky

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Journal Entry:

16 June 2014 Monday

Today we went to a lecture by Professor Ezequiel Adamovsky. (nice name right?)

The place where we went is called La Cazona De Flores and while I don’t understand fully why it’s so significant I do know that a lot of learning takes place there and many educators such as writers and authors give speeches there.

There to welcome us was another anthropologist named Nicolas Fernadez. He sat us down and told us a little history about La Cazona De Flores. It was an upper class house full of paintings owned by a rich family. However,  when the city begin to grow, the neighborhood swallowed up the smaller rich neighborhood.

Now it’s an open space used for studies.  He told us that it is also used a base to connect study courses with employment. I guess that’s the equivalent to an internship. “The house has achieved prestige among the intellectuals, he commented, and the neighborhood of Flores is associated with Afro-Argentine families.”  I think this means a lot, but currently I am not sure why I think this.

Fernadez switched the topic to race in Argentina and I jotted down some of his quotes that I thought were intriguing:

The meaning of race has been a challenged  myth of the country since the beginning

The problem with the stereotypes is not that they are false but incomplete.

Education and violence is what constructed the nation and the false ideas that race doesn’t exist   

If you want to evolve, leave your ethnicities behind

The difference is the resistance of the people and how change comes (his comment in regards to other nations and their response to inequalities)

During the discussion, we spoke about how the government is in control of maintaining the history of Argentina and telling the history of Argentina. He then showed us the 100 peso. There are currently two circulating. One of them, the older one, has the father of the disappearance on it, Julio Argentino Roca (we spoke a little bit about him at the Cemetery) and the other peso has Maria Eva Duarte De Peron’s picture on it.

After his quick discussion, we had lunch and at a popular dish among the indigenous people. ( I am an Indian/ Bolivian dish and it was called Tarte Quino.  I enjoyed it. It did not include meat (surprise!). If I learn how to make one thing on this trip, I would want it to be that!

After lunch the lecture began. Economic, Cultural, Moral and Racial Distinctions in the Making of Class Distinctions in Modern Argentina was filled with complexity for me. I had a hard time following along with the readings because Adamovsty’s voice was monotone and there was a humming in the room. I was just distracted and even dozed off a bit. I am glad he said he would email us the readings.

Nevertheless, I did get something out of the readings. Currently, Argentina is in the middle of social changing and are working to bring about change in relations, schools, newspapers, and even behaviors…The last word makes me think of enculturation all over again. When will governemts learn that certain change is out of their control?

In the 1920’s the middle class and it’s ideologies about society is introduced. Class identity and class separation are not far apart.  

One quote that jumped out at me –which I later asked Adamovsty about – is “ the current president Cristian Fernandez de Kirchner is a defender of ethics”.  Regardless of what Adamovsty meant, how can anyone defend something so vauge and unattainable as ethics? You see why I have to read it myself?

 

Tonight we had a discussion with Dr. Anderson. Apparently I wasn’t the only one trying to grasp the concept of Adamovsty’s paper. She told us how hard it is for Adamovsty who translated his paper into English and also had to read it in English.

Idenity had always been about exclusion in Argentine history. This quote is by Dr. Anderson. Once again we were discussing our favorite topic- race and class. She informed us of a new term: New Poor. The old middle class is slowly becoming new poor and the level of violence has increased. There has never been this many poor people  and it’s becoming a reality for people everywhere. There is also a term to refer to those who are below the poor and it it’s destitute.

One question I now have is- were these terms coined for Argentina or are they social science terms relating to poor and below poor people everywhere? Can we use the term destitute in America to refer to a begger by the wayside?

I am not sure if we are following the Itinerary. I think we are already running out of time.

A visit to Chascomus City

 

16 June 2014 –Tuesday

This morning I woke up really early. I couldn’t go back to sleep and anointed my head to fast. I fasted for the entire day.

I also help my roommate, Tina, make breakfast for everyone. I think Dr. Anderson felt some type of way having me make breakfast but I reassured her and Tina that I was fine cooking. I’ve cooked plenty of times for my family while I was fasting.

Today we traveled to Chascomus City. A city not very close by Buenos Aires. We had to take a van to get there and the van ride was horrible. People already are upset with each other and poor Dr. Anderson had to sit on a broken chair the whole 2 hour ride! I felt sorry for her. Marta got upset with me for singing out loud. All she had to do was ask me kindly to stop. I would have stopped.  I did stop and apologized to everyone. I felt we were all walking on egg shells with one another. The tension in the air was great. I couldn’t wait to get out of the van!

When we finally reached the city, it looked more like a college campus. The first place we went was to the main building the city (I think it’s called the Chascomus Laguna…I think) and used the restroom. This building was my favorite building because it had a dome inside that had fantastic acoustics! I mean, it was better than any church I’ve been in. You could really sing without a microphone and I felt like singing under that dome all day. While I was there testing, a young man came up to me with a camera and another young lady. They asked me if I could talk Spanish or French. Then in broken English asked me if they could interview me.

I turned to ask Dr. Anderson but she was gone with the rest of the group and sent Lauren upstairs to tell me to hurry out. He followed me down stairs and I was glad because Juan ended up doing the Interview which I think came out great. I wish Dr. Anderson would have spoken but she pushed us to do so. I forgot what I said, when the reporter put the camera in my face. I know I was blunt and told them that we were there to study the afro- argentines.  I also remember  my classmates sighing heavily and making snide remarks about being blunt or people there coming after us for what I said.

Finally, the tour of the city begun. Our tour guide name was Gabriela and she only spoke Spanish. She looked like my friend Edna from High school and they even had the same demeanor. I jotted down a few notes such as:

  • City founded in 1779
  • City preserves history of Afro-Argentines
  • 40,000 people live there and all maintain peace
  • The Indians were kicked out and only allowed back in if they were willing to adhere to the immigrants rules
  • 1865 the city begin to grow
  • A group of Indians called Malones (I think) learned how to fight the immigrants using guns and horses

Gabriela also told us about the building I fell in love with

  • It originally had 6 arches attached to the main entrance.
  • San Lamon was the architect

Gabriela continued to speak about other buildings. I begin to take fewer notes and more pictures. 

At the Cemetery

Another Journal Entry:

15 June 2014 Sunday

Today we went to the Recoleta Cemetery. Yes, a cemetery.

I was a bit freaked out at first and I kept wondering if I even belonged there being that I it’s against my religion to participate at all in funerals. One of my classmates commented to me that she doesn’t do grave yards at all and we were able to connect. I quoted what Jesus said to his disciple, “let the dead, burry the dead”.

Nevertheless, I went along with my class and Dr. Anderson and at the end was not scared at all. I realized walking through that the Recoleta Cemetery was actually a tourist site! Imagine, a cemetery as place to sight see! But it is indeed like no other cemetery I ever saw! It is literacy a city of the dead! We walked in and had a time finding our way out. 

We met our tour guide, Simon, who made the tour very interesting and informative. It is at this site I begin to understand the story of the Peron’s and Roca, the father of the disappearance, since I was behind readings.

Simon’s mind seemed to be a store house of innocuous anecdote. He told us stories about government officials as well as others who happened to be buried in the cemetery.  A few stuck with me and if I could have a favorite, it will be the couple who always argued. The man held power of some sort which made the family rich. The women loved to shop, not clothing shopping but high art and things of value. She shopped and created debt for herself and her husband until he put his foot down and told her to quit. Of course she wouldn’t and that is when he refused to pay her debt or associate himself with her buying habit. They stopped talking and their graves were built resembling that fashion. Their backs were towards each other.

I should say here that these tomb stones are huge, some over 10 feet!

I also learned through the story of Rufina Cambaceres (1902 )that Argentina doesn’t waste time in burying the dead, she was buried alive!

The only animal buried in the cemetery is a dog of a girl named Lilliana who died in the 1970’s. She (I forgot if the dog or the girl died that day…) died on her wedding day.

The cemetery was once a garden and is connected to a huge church. It dates all the way back to 1716 and is 14.5 acres which is equivalent to 6 city blocks.

Check out my youtube videos for the full stories.

At the Plaza Francia Fair

Flag

When you are traveling,  the longer you stay away from home, the more you begin to get used to where you are staying. It is usually in the beginning of your stay, while your brain is still making the adjustments, that you learn the most (about the people and the place) with great eagerness.

I went to three fairs while in Argentina and before each fair Dr. Anderson encouraged us to talk to the merchants and try to bargain with them- not shake them down- but make fair bargains with them.

I made great bargains at all the fairs but it was at the Plaza Francia Fair I was able to not only buy two shawls at a great price but to connect with the sales lady and learn the meaning of the indigenous people’s flag.

Each square and each color means something within the universe and more importantly, the meanings also have a lot to do with the women’s body. This is what I picked up:

the white square means the women

the yellow square means the children

the orange square means the youth

the red square means the men

the purple square means the knowledge of the Elderly people

the blue square means the knowledge of the cosmos or universe

and the green square  is the earth

The 7 colors represents the 7 days and in total there are 49 squares. 4+9= 13. The 13 represents the 13 months of the year of the original people. They don’t  / didn’t have 12 months.  It’s 13 months because each month has 28 days like the cycle of the women. There are also 13 bones in the column and 1+3 = 4 which stands for north, south, east and west.

The flag also stands for the elements of life: fire, water, air and the earth. The top of the flag stands for the head, the two sides  stands for the hands and bottom for the feet. In the original language, feet and earth meant the same thing.

The center of the flag stands for the connection of the earth to the unborn babies and the harmony of the earth and 4 elements.

I think I may have missed something in translation so I made a video of her teaching me and posted it on youtube.

Ice Cream

Ice Cream

 

Even though it’s cold outside, I gave in and ordered Vanilla ice cream mixed with nuts. It was so good.

Journal Entry

15 June 2014 Sunday

After that shop we ran out of time and went to the pizza shop where we all planned to meet. Since we were the first ones, we waited outside. It’s there we came across a cult of some sort, an American man from Utah, his wife and followers stopped us. They acted like they were Christians but their testimonies did not sound convincing. They did not testify to the water baptism nor the Holy Ghost and kept saying everyone lived in the same apartment. When they gave us a tract, it was over 30 people in the picture! Children included. It seemed weird. Juan pulled me aside and told me they were a cult and we quickly got away. It seemed also weird that they did not have a church even though they were trying to witness- of what? I don’t know.

After everyone came, we walked quickly to a bar-restaurant to watch the World Cup.  By this time I was missing church. It felt weird being anywhere else and not in service. During the game, I sat beside Dr. Anderson who was great company. We spoke about the readings for the class. Her article in particular. It was something to actually read an article and have the author sitting right next to you willing to talk to you about their work! This was the second thing I appreciated that day (the first being able to make a video of the indigenous woman explain the meaning of her flag and Lisset willing translating everything).

I don’t remember all we spoke about Dr. Anderson did explain the last line of the article to me: “This treatment unfortunately sends the message that we are not really welcome in the country; every day that remind us in a million little ways.”  I asked her why she used the word little as I thought little would damper the plight that the black argentines are suffering with. However she told me that little refers to the micro-violence’s of putting people in their ‘place’ and reminding them constantly of the color of their skin. Little refers to all the small events that break us down.  I say us, because I can relate to their situation…or at least I think I can. 

Dr. Anderson also explained to me, the word Enculturation. She told me that the term assimilation is now outdated, I guess because people are often mixing with one another anyway and the term enculturation means to be forced to let go of what you are (your culture) and forced to pick up a new one. In this case, you don’t really have a choice.

I ordered some good ice cream! I shared it with Juan who I notice loves to eat.

Argentina won against…well, I don’t know who they were playing against but they did win. The place went crazy and I think the most noise came from my table…a table full of Americans.    

We ate dinner at another restaurant close to home…I think.